Browsing: Thoughts from the Classroom

Science, simplified

Early on in my teaching career I would get caught up in the intricate details and vocabulary involved with science. Let’s be honest, middle school science is like a 2nd language to everyone with all of its Latin-based terms and high-level vocabulary. In many cases, this attention to words is warranted, particularly when it comes to words that relay procedure, but in some cases I would argue that the vocabulary can be left out. Here’s why…

Teach to think like a scientist…

There was a paradigm shift that occurred when we moved from the previous science standards to today’s Next Generation Science Standards.  As I’ve talked about before, we’ve moved away from the facts and memorization of all of humanities greatest science discoveries and moved towards teaching the skill-set required to think like a scientist; the ability to think critically and discuss collaboratively. A part of this shift means letting go of long lists of vocabulary and definitions to memorize. I know it might seem as though I am arguing to get rid of something crucial to our studies, certainly some vocabulary knowledge is needed, but should vocabulary be more important than understanding how something works or why something happens? Should it be more important than the scientific process of figuring out phenomena?

Let me use my middle school mitosis lesson as an example. When I first started teaching, I was incredibly concerned that students not only know the name of each stage of mitosis, but that they also knew what happened at each stage with specifics (I mean, honestly, was it so important that my middle schoolers knew what centrioles and spindle fibers were??). We would get so caught up in the vocabulary that the actual purpose of mitosis, the reason why its so important, would get lost in a jumble of complicated words. All my middle school students really needed to know was that one cell becomes two cells that are exactly the same. That’s it! That’s all there is… mitosis at its most basic.

Too much of a good thing…

The epiphany that perhaps I was giving my 13-year-old kiddos just a little too much “science” came from my principal. After observing my mitosis lesson, she asked one simple question that ultimately changed much of how I approached middle school science. She asked, “how important is it that they know all those words?” Of course, there is some vocabulary they simply need, and we have to spend time on, but I no longer believe it should take the lead on the lesson. In fact, one of the principles behind the NGSS is that students make sense of their own understanding of the science and communicate it in ways that are meaningful to them. This suggests that students need a multitude of hands-on experiences with the science so that they can truly understand, in-depth, what is happening. Obviously, students can’t conduct some experiment that “causes” mitosis, but there are ways in which students can observe, model and predict the outcome of the process without getting lost in the vocabulary. Getting lost in the vocabulary is exactly what I saw happening to my students, so I moved away from the vocabulary-dense lessons of my past and spent more time offering different activities that all drove home the same objective – the purpose of mitosis.

Remember, they’ll see it again…

I won’t lie, at first it worried me that I was presenting mitosis without all the stages. I had to go back and check and recheck the standard. I had to remind myself that the objective was for students to understand the purpose of mitosis (and later meiosis). And I had to remind myself that they would see this again in high school biology, when the focus, the standards, and the objectives would make it more appropriate for them to know all that vocabulary. In middle school, we are laying the foundation of science. We are building the wonder and excitement and curiosity that leads to creative thinking, problem solving, and thinking like a scientist.

Check out my activity-based mitosis lesson here!

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Understanding the NGSS – Themes

I love themes. I love classroom décor themes, birthday themes, even literary themes! And I especially love organizing my lessons by themes. Themes tie everything together, creating a unified feeling. I have long argued that thematic, unified teaching is a strong approach to meaningful learning. Prior to the NGSS, I did my best to organize the science standards into themes, and I did ok with it, but the NGSS was made for theme-based curriculum planning, and I love it!

In today’s post, we will take a look at the various themes that run throughout the NGSS (Next Generation Science Standards).  We will look at the NGSS in two sections, K-5 (elementary) and 6-8 (middle school). The NGSS at the elementary and middle school levels was truly designed to move students through various core ideas with increasing depth. The core ideas revolve around the three core science disciplines: Life Science, Physical Science, and Earth Science. The skills and knowledge acquired build on each other, year after year.

Let’s take a look at the chart below to begin seeing the themes and how they build through the years.

Themes organized around the NGSS for K-5.

You might notice one big difference with the NGSS in that grade levels now get a “taste” of each of the 3 disciplines each year. With previous science standards, grade levels generally concentrated on one discipline (for example, Earth Science). This is most prominent at the middle school level as seen in this chart below.

Themes organized around the NGSS for 6-8.

While it is still possible to take a discipline approach to the NGSS (NGSS organized by discipline for middle school can be found here), I would argue that this takes away from the benefits of thematic teaching. Let’s take a look at the middle school thematic approach a little more carefully. Notice that with this approach 6th grade takes on an overall theme of development. How does life develop? How is energy created? How do weather patterns develop? 6th grade students are given a foundation in each of the disciplines and the disciplines feed into each other. Understanding currents and energy leads to an understanding of convection and conduction which leads to an understanding of weather and climate.

In 7th grade, this thematic unification is even more prominent. Students begin by learning the very basics of atoms and chemistry. They then use this knowledge to build onto their 6th grade understanding of cells, looking more deeply into the cell processes of photosynthesis and cellular respiration. This continues into an understanding of the bio-chemical cycles on the earth or how different essential elements such as carbon and oxygen cycle through the Earth. Physical, Life, and Earth science blend together creating a year-long science study about change.

In 8th grade, students take their knowledge one step further, exploring what happens when they challenge their understanding of the science principles. They play around with the idea of force and motion then explore the differences between Earth-bound rules and space. They explore energy and move beyond the Earth and even the solar system to discover the mysteries of the universe. Finally, they look inward, asking questions about genetic mutations and modifications, resource scarcity, and the human impacts on our world.

Teaching thematically gives students the opportunity to see their world as it is. Not broken into pieces, segmented and disjointed, but unified, building upon other ideas and skills, and creating a bigger picture of how things work. Remember that the idea behind the NGSS is to teach students how to think like scientists, not to teach them the history of science.

In my current placement at a science-based elementary (K-6) school, we have been working on developing monthly STEM days. One of my goals this year is to highlight monthly science themes that are promoted school-wide. For example, September’s theme could be “Growing Happy Plants.” You can see on the K-5 chart above how each grade level could participate in this theme based on their set of NGSS and level of understanding. Where Kindergarten students may simply grow plants for observation and exploration, 3rd grade students might track the entire life cycle of a plant, and 5th grade students might look more carefully at what plants need beyond sun and water. The possibilities when themes are involved are endless… and exciting!

Looking for some awesome middle school science lessons based on the NGSS? Check out these fantastic resources here.

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Unlocking the NGSS Series – Intro

The best way to describe the Next Generation Science Standards is like this:  We used to teach students the history of science (facts, dates, people), now we teach students how to think like scientists.  In my mind, this is an amazing and positive shift.  Whether we become scientists or not, we all interact with our physical world is some way.  Observation and critical thinking is key to these interactions.  So, it may not be necessary to know the intricate workings of the ribosomes and endoplasmic reticulum (although who can deny what fun words those are!) but it is arguably helpful to understand what nutrients our cells need and what happens when they don’t get them.  This is the gift our new standards have given us, an opportunity for our students to ask probing questions while observing every day phenomena. 

I’m sure many of us, myself included, can remember spending science class reading about other people’s discoveries and memorizing long lists of Latin-based words or laws about the physical world, particularly in middle school.  If we were lucky, we had the pleasure of a class with labs which at least allowed us to re-discover those discoveries we read about.  If this is all we ever did though, how would we ever discover anything new?  To examine phenomena, ask questions, and test theories is its own special type of critical thinking, one that requires instruction.  The Next Generation Science Standards is designed to steer instruction in this direction, but the fact of the matter is, it can be difficult to teach (and assess) “thinking like a scientist.”  The setup of the written standards is difficult to navigate as well, leaving many teachers unsure about what to teach.

Over the next blog posts, I will be exploring the Next Generation Science Standards for grades K-8 and sharing a few tips I’ve found helpful, both on how to navigate the new standards as well as how to implement them in the classroom.  I will be using and referring to the standards posted on the Next Gen website (http://www.nextgenscience.org/) (although I like the navigation and layout of the California site (https://www.cde.ca.gov/pd/ca/sc/ngssstandards.asp) a bit better).  Lastly, I will try to share as many fabulous and fantastic resources as I can… starting with this one here.

Happy Teaching!

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Reflection of a Year

It’s been a tough year. This past week, the first week of summer, I took a camping trip to the coast. I normally don’t “walk away” so quickly but I needed the time to reflect, to catch my breath. It’s been a long, tough year.

The kids that entered my classroom this past August are not the same kids who left me this June. They’ve grown and matured in amazing ways, ways that cannot and will not be tracked by a summative state test… and that’s ok. They learned coping skills and cooperation. They learned appropriate ways to communicate their emotions, and their needs. They learned that they are worthy of unconditional love and acceptance, but it wasn’t an easy lesson. It’s been a tough year.

The students who came to me in August came with a history. They were “those students,” a cohort I’m sure we’ve all encountered. As a group, they averaged far below grade level in both reading and math. Many of my 5th graders were still mastering regrouping skills in mathematics, let alone multiplication facts. But more than that, they came into the classroom shouldering a collective weight of trauma that no 10 year-old should have to bare. Too many of them had come to believe that adults give up on them. That they aren’t worth anyone’s time. And so, they acted as such.

The first few months were a battle. A stubborn refusal on my part to let up and a relentless push back from them to prove to me that they were right; that eventually I, too, would give up on them. And, believe me, there were days I wanted to. It was a tough year. But sometime in February, we hit a turning point. We had small successes, academic and behavior, then bigger ones. It’s hard sometimes to remember that growth is growth and that small steps are sometimes the most important ones. I had to keep telling myself, “they’ve made a lot of growth.” And they had.

We still encountered problems. This was the year when pencils, erasers and (yes, sadly) chairs were thrown in my classroom. When I spent more time teaching life lessons than grammar. When we had class discussions about kindness and respect and taking care of one another because its what we do. We are a class and that’s just as important as being family. These were new concepts for some of my kiddos. But in the end, we grew together, we spent more time using our words and kind actions to express ourselves and less time being impulsively reactive. It’s been a tough year.

On the last day of school, I looked around at my students and I thought to myself, this is a group of young people I can truly be proud of, even if it’s been a tough year. They worked hard. They grew. They accomplished a lot. Then a student handed me a card. In it she had written: You are the only teacher who ever stood by me. Others followed. Sentiments from students and parents thanking me for being there for them, for their kids. I couldn’t stop the flow of tears as the full impact of the year hit me.

 It occurred to me then that so many people had walked away from these kiddos, they truly believed no one would ever be there for them. What an unfortunate and terribly awful thing to believe at 10. And how many times are we, as teachers, the only adult in a student’s life who sticks by them? After 15 years of teaching, I think I had forgotten just how incredibly impactful our profession is. Each and every day, we make a huge, profound difference. And for some of our kids, we are the only one who stands by them, the only one who believes in their unbridled potential. I became a teacher because of that, because of the magical experience of watching an individual discover and unlock their potential. But somewhere along the line, I got bogged down by the bureaucracy of our profession and lost sight of the real reason I do this… to help young humans be the very best versions of themselves. I was reminded of that this year and thanks to my students, it’s been a good year.

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The Flipped Lab

Not too long ago a concept called “The Flipped Classroom” entered into the education jargon. The idea was to have students complete the direct learning activities at home (lectures, reading) and complete the student-led activities in the classroom (projects, labs, exploration activities). So much of this concept appealed to me when I was first introduced. I am a big proponent of changing our education delivery. What with google and other resources right at our fingertips, information is readily available. Learning to discern, comprehend, and analyze information is really the new frontier of today’s classroom.

The problem for me, however, came in the form of logistics. I have, for most of my career, worked in settings where a student’s access to online resources could be limited at best, and this, it turns out, is a fundamental component of the flipped classroom. Everything from hardware to connectivity meant at least half my students would not be able to access the at home segments of their education. Still, I wanted to explore this idea of student-centered instruction more and do it in a way that ensured everyone had access. That’s when I discovered an idea I came to call “the flipped lab.”

The concept grew out of an ELD/ STEM initiative I worked on. The program aimed to design highly effective STEM lessons that met ELD standards and sought to promote language development through science. One of the guiding principles of the program was that students needed opportunities to experiment with phenomenon before being provided with direct instruction. And this didn’t just mean seeing a demonstration or putting their hands on the equipment for a few minutes. It meant really engaging with the science, on their own, then discussing their observations and thoughts with each other and generating their own questions. Only after they had really delved into a phenomenon would they then be presented with information. To me, this was like becoming Newton or Copernicus, Mendel or Pasteur. Instead of reading about what great minds before them had discovered, they discovered it for themselves then turned to the experts to seek answers to their questions.

My first revelation on how to make this happen came when I was teaching about the xylem and phloem in plants. Normally my lessons would go something like this: Lecture on the xylem and phloem, view artistic renderings of the xylem and phloem online or in the textbook, create our own diagrams about the xylem and phloem, then conduct a (common) lab where we stick carnations into colored water and watch as the white flowers turn a bright red at the edges and finally dissect the stems to observe actual xylem and phloem. In all honesty, by the time we got to the last part (the most exciting part!) most of them were so lost and confused, the phenomenon had little effect! That’s when I decided to flip the lab.

The next time I taught this lesson, I started with the carnations. No explanation, no reasoning, just a simple “Let’s observe and see what happens.” Within a day the color began to creep up the stalk and into the white petals. Small streaks of red made their way across and pooled at the edges. The students were fascinated! How had this happened? Could they cut the flowers open and look at the inside? Could they view it under the microscope? Why was it only moving up parts of the stalk while other parts seemed unaffected? They discussed ideas, thoughts and theories with each other, each bringing to the table their unique language, background, and experience. Soon we had a collection of theories and a ton of questions… and a reason now to move with engagement to the books, diagrams, and online resources.

In many ways, a “flipped lab” is the underbelly of the Next Generation Science Standards. As humans, we are natural observers and questioners of the world around us… natural scientists. The science classroom should be a place where we can celebrate this innate curiosity within us!

Looking for lessons to help flip your labs? Check out these great resources:

Student-led exploration of plant and animals cells

Exploration of Newton’s Laws through race cars

An introduction to cells and the basic needs of all living things

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Making Microscopes

Did you know that you can turn your smartphone or tablet into a Microscope? Here’s How…

Light allows us to see objects. It reflects off an object and projects an image onto the retina of our eyes, which our brain then interprets. But, if we bend the light, we can change how the object projects. We can make the object bigger or smaller, or even distort the image completely. By using a lens (a curved piece of transparent material, usually plastic or glass), we can manipulate the light to make an object appear closer or larger.
In this activity, we will combine the camera lens already found in a smartphone or tablet, with a second lens to make a microscope (a tool to see (scope) small (micro) things).

Materials:
*Inexpensive Laser Pointer *bobby pin
*super glue *tweezers or small screwdriver
*wire cutters (or other scissors strong
enough to cut through metal)
*masking tape
*tablet or smart phone

Directions:
Disassemble the laser pointer until you are left with the light
and circuit unit. The small, silver barrel attached to the unit
contains the lens.

Break off the silver tube, setting all other pieces aside.

Using the tweezers or small screw driver, carefully remove the ring that holds the lens in place. The lens should fall out after the ring is removed.
If you are unable to remove the ring, complete the optional step below.

(OPTIONAL – only needed if step 3 was unsuccessful) Using the wire cutters, carefully cut notches into the sides of the top, loosening the hold on the lens (use caution and adult supervision here… alternatively, students can attempt to work the lens loose with the bobby pin and tweezers. It’s important not to scratch the lens, however.)

Turn the top upside down on a firm surface and gently bang the top against the surface until the lens comes loose. You can also attempt to work the lens loose with the bobby pin or tweezers. Be sure not to scratch the lens, however.

Once you have the lens, set it off to the side while you prepare the bobby pin.

Open the bobby pin slightly so that the opening is a bit wider than usual. (You want the lens to fit snugly in-between the prongs, without snapping out). Carefully place a small drop of super glue on both sides of the largest notch in the bobby pin.

Using the tweezers, carefully place the lens into the large notch of the bobby pin, being careful not to get glue on the lens. Allow the glue to dry.

Once the glue is dry, place the lens directly over the camera lens on your tablet or smartphone. Attach masking tape to hold the bobby pin in place. Your makeshift-microscope is now ready to use!

Turn on your device and access the camera function.

You will need to adjust the magnification and blurriness of objects in two ways, first by using the zoom-in function of your device’s camera and second by adjusting how far away you hold the device from the object you are attempting to view. (This is similar to using the focus knob on a traditional microscope).

Use your makeshift-microscope to explore the microscopic world around you! When you are ready to look at specimens, use a specimen slide just as you would with a traditional microscope.

Watch the process here!

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Graphic Novels… A Novel Problem?

As a middle school science teacher, I often encouraged my students to read… read anything. I was of the opinion that it didn’t really matter what they read, as long as they were reading. So, in my mind, suitable reading material could have included online news articles, blogs, magazines, and, yes, even graphic novels. Then I started teaching 5th grade… 5th grade reading and writing to be exact.

At first, I didn’t pick up on what was happening. It seemed as though my students (not all of them but many) were writing their papers as if they were writing a play.  Their papers included headings that documented the passage of time (4 hours later…) formatting that was anything but a paragraph, dialogue written with colons rather than quotation marks (Barbara: I’d love to go!), and descriptions that would be better described as captions without pictures.

We worked through lesson after lesson on grammar, paragraph structure, organization and detail. Still, a number of kids continued to submit papers written in this strange, disjointed manner.  It wasn’t until I took a look at their extra-curricular ready material that a theory started to emerge – their writing habits mirrored the popular graphic novels they were reading, minus the necessary pictures.

It’s hard for me to admit that modern graphic novels may not be the suitable reading material I’ve always touted. Reading should be a joyful experience and if that’s what a kid enjoys, who am I to deny it? Still, it’s hard to miss the fact that the modern graphic novel does not display the same level of depth and comprehension as a literary novel does. Additionally, it models for students a form of writing that relies too heavily on pictures to carry much of the content.

So, what is the solution then? I certainly don’t want to deny a student pleasurable reading experiences, but I also can’t ignore the fact that solely reading from this genre role models poor writing skills (when writing is the sole objective) and limits their scope of comprehension. Balance. As I explained to one student recently, balance is, I believe, the key. Just like anything else, relying only on one genre of reading (graphic novels) limits you as a reader, and as a writer. So, I am encouraging my students not to put down the graphic novels altogether but to pick up a few literary novels in between.

But, I’d love to hear your thoughts on the great graphic novel debate… Do you allow students to read them for outside reading projects in your classroom? Do you find that they limit their abilities as readers or writers? Do you encourage or discourage their use? Leave your thoughts in the comments below!

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The Metric System… A Love Story

The other day I was having a conversation with my son about the metric system.  It started innocently enough.  He had asked what a gram was and I had obnoxiously and sarcastically replied “1/1000 of a kilogram.”  After rolling his eyes and telling me in an exasperated voice that was NOT what he meant, he then wondered how I’d know it was 1/1000.  Thus, a conversation on the metric system.  My mom, who was listening in at the time, chimed in with a helpful “I don’t know why you bother.  No one uses the metric system anyway.”  As shocked as I was, I was even more dismayed to note that this was the second time in as many days that I’d heard this sentiment.  Yes, I suppose our everyday dealings with measurements requires us to more routinely know the customary system than the metric system.  But who among us can deny the beauty and pure elegance that is the base-ten foundation of the metric system?  A simple glide of a decimal point this way or that and voila!  The value of the number has instantly changed!  None of this multiplying by 3 or dividing by 12.  No!  Just a flip of the little decimal and suddenly my liters are deciliters… my kilometers are hectometers… my…

Okay, maybe I find the metric system slightly more compelling then most but truly, it is a pretty nifty way to convert measurements, once you know what you’re doing.  Plus, it’s the accepted system of measurements for all things science, so naturally, I’m in (you had me at science… *sigh*).

Teaching 8th grade science where we deal with a lot of physics (and a lot of measurement!), I was always shocked to find that the metric system was relatively new for most students even though it is addressed in the (California) math standards during earlier years.  Though I’ve known some teachers to push forward with their speed and acceleration calculations using the customary system, I found it better in the long run to spend 2 weeks at the start of the year immersed in a unit on the metric system (despite constant moans from my students that they thought they were in science, not math… ugh!).  Knowing the metric system and using it throughout a course on physics (and even other science disciplines) allows students to have a more concrete understanding of the physical principles they are bound to encounter.  After all, if I’ve spent my time recording data in inches and feet, how will I deal with that pesky 9.8 m/s2 as my object comes tumbling towards Earth?

Certainly, there is a benefit to addressing both the metric system and the customary system in the science classroom.  After all, when I calculate the velocity of the Ferrari speeding down the American highway, it’s not likely the patrolman clocked it in meters per second.  Knowing how to use both systems ensures a student’s understanding of the concept.  But, let’s not ignore the metric system, at the middle or even the elementary school level.  There is something quite magical about a system of measurement that can change with the flick of a decimal point.

 

Want to try a metric unit in your classroom?  Check out my unit on the metric system here.

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Battling the Multiplication Blues

This year, after years at the middle school level, I made the move back down to elementary school.  I was excited for the chance to once again teach all the core subjects and to build a stronger community with my self-contained classroom students.

At the end of the summer I joined my new colleagues for a retreat to plan and discuss the coming year.  One of the activities we participated in involved having discussions with the grade levels above and below us about the skills students need most as they entered our classroom.  The one skill that seemed to permeate multiple grade levels was the need for knowing basic multiplication facts.  It was evident from the discussion that from 3rd grade on, the curriculum relied on a student’s ability to quickly recall basic multiplication facts and that students who did not obtain this skill by 4th grade were quickly falling behind.

When I began working with my 5th grade students this year, I saw just how true these sentiments were.  Some of my students came equipped with multiplication mastery but many, too many, did not, making everything from fractions to calculating the area of a square difficult.  I sent home practice worksheets, assigned flashcards, and even gave weekly timed multiplication tests but the fact remained, those who knew it, knew it and those who didn’t weren’t investing the time needed to get it.

While flash cards and practice worksheets are not fan favorites in my classroom, learning games are which is how the Multiplication Battle Game was created.  (It started as a sneaky way to fill an extra ten minutes before recess and get kiddos to fill out their blank multiplication charts.) This is how the game works:

Students build a game board that consists of a file folder, a completed multiplication chart, and a blank multiplication chart.

One student attaches their game board to another students game board using binder clips.  The binder clips act as a support so that students can sit facing each other while viewing their board.

Each student then covers 5-7 math facts on their top board (the completed multiplication chart).  You can do this using sticky notes cut into small squares.  These become their “hidden spots.”

To play the game, each player takes turns stating a math fact with the answer. For example, Player 1 might say “2 x 4 = 8.”  Player 1 then marks the answer in the correct spot on their blank game board. Once player 1 has written down their math fact, player 2 will announce whether or not this was a hidden spot on player 2’s top board. If it is, player 1 can mark this on their blank chart with an ‘X.’

Player 2 will go next, following the same steps as player 1. Play continues back and forth until one person discovers all of their opponents hidden facts.

The first person to find all of their opponents marked spots wins!

Having students complete the blank multiplication chart as they play is the real key here as this is the step that provides students with the repetitive practice they need.  As extensions to the activity, I have had students complete the rest of their charts as homework after the games are over and I have even encouraged students to teach and play the game at home, offering it as a homework menu choice.

The outcome of incorporating the game into my classroom has been positive.  Yes, there are still students who struggle but the idea of ‘practicing math facts’ has a lighter tone in the classroom now.  But the best result?  Watching one student in particular light up as he recalls math facts automatically, a skill he didn’t have previously.  The smile on his face as he fills with pride and states math facts with ease is worth every moment in the classroom!

Interested in trying the game in your classroom?  Find detailed instructions and resources here.

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I was that student…

Imagine your most recent staff meeting.  A long hour (or more) after a long day.  Data and statistics and dates to remember flying at your exhausted brain which is drifting off to the papers waiting to be graded on your desk or the chocolate waiting at home.

Now imagine a student.  Imagine the student who raises their hand in class with so much intensity you are sure they will fall out of their seat.  ‘Quiet hands’ is simply impossible for this student as they wiggle, squirm, and “silently” declare “Oh, I know this!”

Now imagine this… today, during my staff meeting, that student was me.

I honestly don’t know what came over me, whether it was exhaustion or stress (or both).  I certainly didn’t plan it.  But as my principal asked a question about the data we were looking at my hand suddenly shot up in the air, I literally kicked the co-worker next to me, and I “silently” declared “Oh, I know this!”  Thankfully everyone, including me, burst into laughter that felt like a much needed release.  Data, after all, is not easily digested at 4pm. Banter about whether the student without the quiet hand should be called on ensued but I was finally allowed to answer.

The incident got me thinking a bit about how I react to the ‘little things’ in my classroom.  Do I recognize the moments when laughter is needed more than information, structure and procedure?  Don’t get me wrong, all of those things are important and we educate in an age when time is precious and there is a lot to cover.  But perhaps taking a moment to laugh with my students, to treasure their enthusiasm over their ‘quiet hands,’ is equally important?  Sometimes I know I can let those little things become big things in a negative way, focusing too much on the distraction and loss of instruction.

But tomorrow I have decided that I will find time to incorporate laughter and positive spirit in my classroom and to relish the enthusiastic hand.

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